HISTORY OF W. A. MOZART

…..THE FAMOUS AUSTRIAN COMPOSER
The full name of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is Johann Chrysostom Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, (born January 27, 1756, in Salzburg, archbishopric of Salzburg [Austria] and died on December 5, 1791, in Vienna). The Austrian composer is widely recognized as one of the greatest composers in the history of Western music. With Haydn and Ludwig Beethoven he added to the achievement of the Viennese Classical school. Mozart wrote excellently in all the musical genres of his days. His musical form and expression have made him be seen as the most universal of all composers.

Early Life of Mozart
Mozart was mostly called Wolfgang Amadé or Wolfgang Gottlieb. His father, Leopold, was from a family of good standing which included architects and bookbinders. Leopold, the father to Mozart was the author of a famous violin-playing manual, which was published in1756 the very year Mozart was born. His mother’s name was Anna Maria Pertl, born of a middle-class family active in local administration.

Mozart and his sister Maria Anna (“Nannerl”) were the only two surviving children out of seven.
His childhood early talent for music was remarkable. When he was he was able to pick out chords on the harpsichord, at four years he played short pieces, at five years he started composing.

He has a precise memory of pitch, that he scribbled a concerto at the age of five, but funny to add was always afraid of the trumpet. Before he was six years, his father took him and his sister who was also highly talented, to Munich to play a musical piece at the Bavarian court, a few months later they traveled to Vienna and performed at the imperial court and in noble houses.

In mid-1763 he Mozart’s father obtained a leave of absence from his position as deputy Kapellmeister at the prince-archbishop’s court at Salzburg and took the family set out on a prolonged tour. They went to all the main musical centers of western Europe, places such as Munich, Augsburg, Stuttgart, Mannheim, Mainz, Frankfurt, Brussels, and Paris where they stayed throughout the winter, then to London (where they spent 15 months).

After the 15 months, they returned through The Hague, Amsterdam, Paris, Lyon, and Switzerland, and arrive back in Salzburg in November 1766. In most of these cities which Mozart went, he performed often with his sister, sometimes at court, sometimes in public or in a church. During their stay in Paris, they met several German composers, and Mozart’s published his first music titled “sonatas for keyboard and violin”, dedicated to a royal princess. In London they met Johann Christian Bach the youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach a leading figure in the city’s musical life, under Johann Sebastian Bach’s influence, Mozart composed his 1st symphonies “three survive” (K sixteen, K 19, and K 19a—K signifying the work’s place in the catalog of Ludwig von Köchel). He also published two more during a stay in The Hague on the return journey (K 22 and K 45a).

Mozart symphony mvt 1

After months of their return to Salzburg, the Mozarts set out for Vienna in September 1767 and spent 15 months where Mozart wrote a one-act German singspiel, titled “Bastien und Bastienne”, and was published privately. He also composed an Italian opera buffa, titled “La finta semplice” (“The Feigned Simpleton”), done at the court theatre. La finta semplice was published in the following year, 1769, in the archbishop’s palace in Salzburg. In October, Mozart was appointed ANunearned Konzertmeister at the city court. At 13, Mozart had by now achieved considerable influence in the musical language of his time, and he was imitating the local musical.

MOZART’S Italian Tours
His mastery of the Italian operatic style was a tool for a successful international composing career, and the Austrian political dominion over northern Italy ensured that doors would be open there to Mozart. By this time, Mozart’s mother and sister remained at home, and the family correspondence provides a full account of events. Mozart’s first tour, started on December 13, 1769, and lasted for 15 months, he travelled to all the main musical centres, but as usual, he usually stops at any town wherever a concert may be given or a male aristocrat would possibly need to listen to Mozart play. When he arrived Verona, Mozart was put through stringent tests at the Accademia Filarmonica. and at Milan, he was tested of his capacities in dramatic music, he was commissioned to write the first opera for the carnival season.

He travelled to Florence to Rome for Holy Week. There Mozart detected the Sistine Choir within the renowned “Miserere of Gregorio Allegri (1582–1652)”, that was thought of the choir’s exclusive preserve. After six weeks in Naples, he returned to Rome, and had a papal audience and was made a knight of the order of the Golden Spur. After the summer in Bologna Mozart passed the tests for admission to the Accademia Filarmonica. In mid-October, he called Milan and began to work on a new opera, “Mitridate, rè di Ponto” (“Mithradates, King of Pontus”). He had to rewrite several of his works to satisfy the singers, but, after a series of rehearsals, “the premiere” at the Regio Ducal Teatro on December 26 was a notable success. Mozart, as usual, directed the first three of the 22 performances. After a brief excursion to Venice Mozart and his father returned to Salzburg.

He Planned of visiting Italy again for a theatrical serenata commissioned for a royal wedding in Milan in October 1771 and for another opera for Milan, at carnival time in 1772–73. He was also commissioned to write an oratorio for Padua; where he composed “La Betulia liberate” in 1771. In his second Italian journey, between August and December 1771, he saw the premiere of his Ascanio in Alba. Back in Salzburg, Mozart wrote eight symphonies, four divertimentos, several substantial sacred works, and an allegorical serenata titled “Il Sogno di Scipione”.

On his third and last Italian journey which lasted from October 1772 until March 1773, hr wrote Lucio Silla (“Lucius Sulla”) and he published it on December 26, 1772, after a difficult premiere and was even more successful than Mitridate, with 26 performances. This was the first sign of the dramatic composer Mozart was to become. After Lucio Silla, he composed a solo motet written for its leading singer, the castrato and composer Venanzio Rauzzini, Exsultate, jubilate (K 165), an appealing three-movement piece culminating in a brilliant “Alleluia.”

Mozart’s Early Maturity
More symphonies and divertimentos, as well as a mass, was published during the summer of 1773. Mozart produced a set of six string quartets in the capital of Venice, showing in them his knowledge of Haydn’s recent Opus 20 in his fuller textures and more intellectual approach to the medium. Soon after his return to Salzburg, he wrote a group of symphonies, including two that represent a new level of achievement, the “Little” G Minor (K 183) and the A Major (K 201). At this time Mozart also composed his first true piano concerto (in D, K 175 arranged by other composers).

The year 1774 he composed more symphonies, concertos for bassoon and for two violins using a style of J.C. Bach. He also composed serenades and several sacred works. At the end of the year, Mozart was commissioned to write an opera buffa, “La finta giardiniera” (“The Feigned Gardener Girl”), for the Munich carnival season, where it was duly successful. This shows him, in his first comic opera since his childhood, finding ways of using the orchestra more expressively and of giving real personality to the pasteboard figures of Italian opera buffa.

After two and a half years (from March 1775), Mozart worked steadily in his Salzburg post. During this time, he wrote only one dramatic work (the serenata-like Il rè pastore, “The Shepherd King,” for an archducal visit), but he was also productive in sacred and lighter instrumental music. His most interesting piece for the church was the Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento (K 243), which uses a wide range of styles (fugues, choruses of considerable dramatic force, florid arias, and a plainchant setting). The instrumental works included divertimentos, concertos, and serenades which included the Haffner (K 250), which in its use of instruments and its richness of working carried the serenade style into the symphonic style without contradicting its traditional warmth and high spirits. The five concertos for violin, all from this time, show remarkable growth over a few months in confidence in handling the medium, with increasingly fanciful ideas and attractive and natural contexts for virtuoso display. The use of popular themes in the finales is typically south German. He also composed a concerto for three pianos and three piano concertos, the last of them, K 271, showing a new level of maturity in technique and expressive range

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